Endurance and strength training cheat sheet


A summary guide of some information I've compiled because 1) I keep forgetting it, and 2) I want a place to send people who ask me about this stuff.

Supplements that work

Supplement What it does Dosage Frequency When to take it Notes
Whey protein Necessary for muscle protein synthesis. 0.8-1g/lb Daily Doesn't matter Dietary protein can reduce the supplementation required.
Creatine Increases muscle mass, strength, performance, and recovery. ~5g Daily Doesn't matter Women seem to benefit less from creatine supplementation than men.
Caffeine Increases power output, anaerobic capacity, and endurance. Improves reaction time and reduces perceived exertion rate. 2-4mg/lb Skip during rest days. 60min before exercise Tolerance builds quickly, so dosing needs to be "managed" if you're competing.
Beta-alanine Improves strength gains, muscular endurance, and performance in high-intensity exercise. Reduces neuromuscular fatigue. 3-6g Daily Doesn't matter Causes (harmless) parasthesia in many people.
Citrulline malate Improves performance through increased nitric oxide production, improves aerobic and anaerobic capacity, reduces soreness. 8g Skip during rest days. 60min before exercise Very sour, tastes like lemon juice.
Sodium bicarbonate Improves performance during repeated high-intensity aerobic exercise by negating effects of acidosis. 100-130mg/lb Skip during rest days. 60-150min before exercise Beware gastrointestinal side effects. I haven't personally used.

Supplements to skip / avoid

*Supplements that work (e.g., fish oil) won't be discussed here if they support general health (rather than performance).

Endurance Training

Common NameRecoveryEasyEnduranceTempoThresholdVO2maxSprint
Lactate Threshold 1 (LT1)
Lactate Threshold 2 (LT2)
3 Zone ModelZone 1Zone 2Zone 3
5 Zone ModelZone 1Zone 2Zone 3Zone 4Zone 5
Rating of Perceived Exertion12345678910
Time to failureAll day5+ hrs2-3 hrs1 hr30-60min15min5-8min1-5min
Heartrate (approx)50%65%72%80%85%92%100%
Blood lactate (mmol/L)

Strength Training


Dispelling some popular myths that seem to be wrong or unsupported.


I made everything up